It’s often joked that electricians houses are full of flickering bulbs and plumbers have leaking taps – well it turns out that my nutritional house is also not quite in order with a gaping hole in the iron department.
Despite having many symptoms of anemia, the recent news that I was very low in iron came as quite a shock – afterall, doing what I do – my diet is pretty well balanced with plenty iron-containing foods and I know quite a few tricks of the trade with regards to iron absorption. So what gives?
I immediately dismissed my low iron levels down to an absorption issue or possible blood loss in the GI tract – and it’s important to note that these issues haven’t yet been discounted and require further investigation. However, it took a good two weeks for me to truly think properly about whether or not I’d really be hitting my recommended daily intake (RDI) of iron – which as a woman of child bearing age is quite high at 18mg/day. And the answer is unfortunately probably no and this maybe a problem that is also affecting you.
In fact, low iron is a pretty common issue in Australian diets starting young with the average iron intakes falling below RDI in all genders and age brackets in our kids up until 9-13 years old and then continuing as an issue for females into their teen and child-bearing adult years where average intakes are well below the RDI. Males from 9 years onwards and post-menopausal women generally reach their iron targets.
So, lets start at the start – what is iron and what are the signs that you maybe low?
Iron is a mineral which is present in a range of proteins notably including your haemoglobin which is critical to the transport of oxygen around your body. Without sufficient oxygen to your bodily tissues, fatigue takes hold and this may be the reason why you can’t seem to peel yourself off the couch, why you maybe having trouble concentrating, why you are unusually puffed out or feel tired or less fit than you should.
Other symptoms include paleness, poor immunity, headaches and dizziness and in extreme or prolonged cases heart palpitations and damage or failure can occur. Iron deficiency can also impact the health of your skin, hair and nails – with dryness or brittleness being a key sign . Though iron deficiency doesn’t cause depression, the symptoms can be very similar and therefore exacerbate existing depression or logically as iron deficiency makes you feel pretty terrible and tired, it can disguise itself pretty well as depression, leading to confusion and misdiagnosis.
The most common causes for iron deficiency are restrictive or poorly-balanced diets, IBS, heavy menstruation or internal bleeding. Pregnancy, high training loads or periods of rapid growth can also catch out people when requirements can raise considerably above previously required levels.
Types of iron and how much do you need
Heme-iron – derived from animal-based sources (red meats, poultry, fish
Non-heme iron – derived from plant-based sources (legumes, grains, veggies)
Heme-iron is absorbed to a far greater extent than non-heme iron and there are various other factors at play which impact iron absorption.
- Individuals vary in their capacity to absorb iron from food and this also then varies based on their iron levels at any point in time
- Consuming heme iron at the same time as non-heme iron increases absorption from those non-heme iron sources
- Vitamin C (or citric/lactic acid) helps the absorption of iron – especially non-heme iron
- Calcium, Zinc or phytates (as found in some grains, rice or legumes) can negatively impact absorption of iron. Cooking/soaking/sprouting or fermenting your veg and grains can reduce phytate content – but even easier: phytic acid load can be counteracted by vitamin C.
- Some polyphenols including the tannins in tea or coffee and vegetable proteins can reduce the absorption of non-heme iron.
Translating the key points above into practical tips, this means the addition of some oranges, lemon juice, capsicum or other vitamin C containing foods to your meals and especially into your salads/legumes/veg would be beneficial for iron absorption and don’t have iron-rich foods or supplements with milk-containing drinks/food or with your tea or coffee.
For the reasons above, it’s really important to note that veganism and vegetarianism can be problematic for iron stores if due attention is not applied. This is why the recommended daily intakes (RDI’s) are 80% higher for vegetarians and vegans than those noted below. The values referenced below cover the majority of the populations needs – though many may do just fine with a bit less. It’s really important to note that low iron stores in children can affect cognitive function and growth – so it’s important to ensure your little tackers are on track!
Daily Iron intake targets:
- Children between 1-3 years 9mg/day
- Children between 4-9 years: 10mg/day
- Children between 9-13 years: 8mg/day
- Girls between 14-18 years: 15mg/day
- Boys between 14-18 years: 11mg/day
- Women between 19-50 years: 18mg/day or 9mg/day if lactating
- Pregnant : 27mg/day – this is virtually impossible to reach via food alone and supplementation during pregnancy is essential
- Adult men 19years+ and women over 50years: 8mg/day
So – how much iron do you pump a day?
Go ahead and compare your targets (and those of your kids!) above against your typical daily intake of iron-rich foods – referencing the list below for estimated iron content.
Do you reach your RDI?
Typical iron content in 100g of the following heme sources:
- Shellfish: 4-10mg (clams and oysters are on the higher side, prawns and shrimp on the lower side)
- Organ meats – eg liver: 6-8mg
- Beef: 3.5mg
- Kangaroo: 3.2mg
- Lamb or dark turkey meat: 2.5mg
- Fatty fish or white turkey meat: 1-1.3mg
- Pork: 0.8mg
- Chicken: 0.4mg
- White fish: around 0.3mg
Typical iron content in the following non-heme sources:
- 1 cup of beans, chickpeas or lentils: 4-6mg
- 30g of fortified cereals (eg Weetbix): 3-4mg
- 30g of pumpkin seeds or min 70% dark chocolate (yay!): 3mg
- Half a cup of tofu: 3mg
- 1 cup of Wholemeal pasta or quinoa: 2.2mg
- 1 cup of raw spinach or mushrooms: 1.2mg
- 30g of oats, seeds or most nuts: 1.1mg
- 4-5 Dried apricots: 1mg
- 1 cup of broccoli or cooked brown rice: 0.7-0.8mg
- Slice of bread: 0.5mg
How did your diet compare – do you reach your target?
If not and you’re exhibiting some of the symptoms discussed above, it’s very possible you maybe low on iron. However taking supplementation without medical advice or without having an established deficiency is not recommended and toxicity can result from incorrect supplementation – especially in children. Symptoms may include gastric pain or bleeding, headaches, nausea and vomiting among others.
So your first stop is your GP to get a pathology script to check your iron levels and depending on your results, either work on improving iron-content of your diet – of course Life Nutrition can help with this – and possibly supplementation maybe recommended.
If you do need to supplement, note that there are a wide variety of supplement types from injections to pills or liquids so if you experience unpleasant side effects, pursue other options and dosages as some iron states or salts are more easily absorbed – speak with your GP or pharmacist to find the right solution for you.